BIRBAL SAHINI –
Birbal Sahni was a renowned paleobotanist of India, who studied the fossils of
the Indian subcontinent. Also a great geologist, Sahni is credited for establishing the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany at Lucknow in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
C N R RAO –
He is an Indian chemist who has worked mainly in solid-state and structural
chemistry.Currently Prof CNR Rao is working on the advanced materials and nanomaterials
including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, metaloxide tubes and wires
C R RAO –
Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao was an Indian mathematician and statistician and
made significant contribution to the Indian Statistical Institute. He is known for Cramer-Rao
inequality, Rao-Blackwell theorem, Rao’s score test and Rao’s orthogonal arrays. The C.R. Rao
Award for Statistics was instituted in his honor, to be given once in two years.
C V RAMAN–
Chandrasekhara V. Raman, popularly known as C.V. Raman was an Indian physicist, who won Physics Nobel Prize in 1930 for Raman Effect related to scattering of light and thusbecoming the first Asian to win Nobel in Physics. He found that there were two spectral lines of very low intensity (strength) parallel to the incident monochromatic light. This showed that broken light was not monochromatic, though the incident light was monochromatic. While scientists had been debating over the question whether light was like waves or like particles, the Raman Effect proved that light is made up of particles known as photons. Dr. Raman’s life is a great example for us to follow. Even when India was under British rule and there was hardly anybasic infrastructure for experimentation, he used his great mind as his laboratory.
G N RAMCHANDRAN –
Gopalasamudram Narayana Iyer Ramachandran is best known work of G.N. Ramachandran till date is the Ramachandran plot/map, which the scientist had conceived along with Viswanathan Sasisekharan, to understand the molecular structures. Ramachandranset up the Molecular Biophysics Unit at the IISc which is today a major research centre.
GANAPATHI THANIKAIMONI –
He was a successful botanist of his days, is remembered till date
for his widespread contribution in the field of palynology. His researches and projects not only
helped India to make its presence felt on the world stage of botany, it also furthered public
relations between two countries.
HAKIM SYED ZILLUR RAHMAN–
He is well known for his contribution to Unani medicine. He
founded Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences in 2000.
HARGOBIND KHORANA – Dr. Har Gobind Khorana shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine and
Physiology in 1968 with Marshall Nirenberg and Robert Holley for cracking the genetic code.
HARISH CHANDRA –Indian physicist and mathematician. His profound contributions to the
representation theory of Lie groups, harmonic analysis, and related areas left researchers a rich
legacy that continues today.
HOMI JEHANGIR BHABHA –
Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha was a great scientist. He led India into
atomic age. He is called the father of Indian Nuclear Science. He took a degree in Mechanical
Engineering in First Class from Cambridge, completed research work there and received his
doctorate in 1935. Till 1939, he carried outstanding original research relating to cosmic
radiation. He returned to India when the Second World War started. Dr. Bhabha joined the
Indian Institute of Sciences at Bangalore as a Reader at the request of Dr. C.V. Raman. With his
and J R D Tata’s efforts, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) was started in 1945, at Dr.
Bhabha’s ancestral home. Bhabha became the first chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission
set up in 1948. He was the one who laid the foundation
JAGDISH CHANDRA BOSE –
Dr. Bose is famous all over the world as the inventor of Crescograph
that can record even the millionth part of a millimeter of plant growth and movement. Dr. Bose
proved through graphs taken by the Crescograph that plants have a circulatory system too.
Crescograph has also shown that the upward movement of sap in plants is the activity of living
cells. He developed the use of galena crystals for making receivers, both for short wavelength
radio waves and for white and ultraviolet light. In 1895, two years before Marconi’s
demonstration, Bose demonstrated wireless communication using radio waves, using them to
ring a bell remotely and to explode some gunpowder. Many of the microwave components
familiar today – waveguides, horn antennas, polarizers, dielectric lenses and prisms, and even
semiconductor detectors of electromagnetic radiation – were invented and used by Bose in the
last decade of the nineteenth century. He also suggested the existence of electromagnetic
radiation from the Sun, which was confirmed in 1944. Bose then turned his attention to
response phenomena in plants. He showed that not only animal but vegetable tissues, produce
similar electric response under different kinds of stimuli – mechanical, thermal, electrical and
K CHANDRASEKHARAN –Komaravolu Chandrasekharan was the force behind the mathematics
school at TIFR.
M K VAINU BAPPU – Indian astronomer, widely known for his discovery of a comet known as
Bappu-Bok-Newkirk, after Bappu and his colleagues Bart Bok and Gordon Newkirk. He and Colin
Wilson discovered a relationship between the luminosity of particular kinds of stars and some of
their spectral characteristics. This important observation came to be known as the BappuWilson effect and is used to determine the luminosity and distance of these kind of stars.
M VISWESARIAH – The modern India’s foremost engineering genius. He had designed the
wonderful water canal system for Deccan region. He had designed automatic water gates for
regulating water in dams and reservoirs. In the year 1903, the water gates were first erected at
Khadakvasla near Pune.
MEGHNAD SAHA –
He was one of the leading physicists of 20th century. His theory of hightemperature ionization of elements and its application to stellar atmospheres, as expressed by
the Saha equation, is fundamental to modern astrophysics; subsequent development of his
ideas has led to increased knowledge of the pressure and temperature distributions of stellar
atmospheres. He returned to the University of Calcutta in 1938 where he introduced nuclear
physics into the post-graduate physics curriculum. In 1947 he established the Indian Institute of
Nuclear Physics (now known as the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics). Later in his life, Saha
played an active role in the development of scientific institutions throughout India as well as in
national economic planning involving technology.
P C MAHALANOBIS – He was a mathematician and statistician. He headed Indian Institute of
Statistics, Calcutta. He led the institute to become one of the world’s top institutes. He was also
the man behind the Second Plan which laid the foundation of heavy industry in India.
Acharya RAFULLA CHANDRA RAY – Prafulla Chandra believed that the progress of India could be
achieved only by industrialization. He set up the first chemical factory in India, with very minimal
resources, working from his home. In Prafulla Chandra Ray, the qualities of both a scientist and
an industrial entrepreneur were combined and he can be thought of as the father of the Indian
RAJ RAMANNA – Handpicked by the founder of India’s nuclear program, Dr. Homi Bhabha, Dr.
Raja Ramanna was a celebrated physicist and nuclear scientist that India had ever produced. A
multifaceted personality, Dr. Raja Ramanna played the roles of a technologist, nuclear physicist,
administrator, leader, musician, Sanskrit literature scholar, and philosophy researcher.
RAJ REDDY – Raj Reddy known for the work on large scale artificial intelligence systems.
S S ABHYANKAR – A great Mathematician and known for contribution to Algebraic Geometry
SALIM ALI – Bird watcher and biologist. He is called as ‘Birdman of India’ and helped
development of ornithology as a discipline in India.
SATYENDERNATH BOSE–Satyendra Nath Bose was an outstanding Indian physicist. He is known
for his work in Quantum Physics. He is famous for “Bose-Einstein Theory” and a kind of particle
in atom has been named after his name as Boson. In 1921, Bose left Kolkata to become a Reader
at the Dakha University. It was during this period that he wrote the famous paper on the
statistics of photons. It was named Bose statistics after him and is now an integral part of
physics. Paul Dirac, the legendary physicist, coined the term boson for particles obeying these
SHANTI SWAROOP BHATNAGAR –He is noted for his pioneering contribution in setting up of
CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) which has now spawned in form of 39
laboratories. The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar (SSB) Prizes are awarded annually by the Council of
Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) after him for notable and outstanding research, applied
or fundamental, in Biological, Chemical, Earth, Atmosphere, Ocean and Planetary, Engineering,
Mathematical, Medical and Physical Sciences. The purpose of the prize is to recognize
outstanding Indian work in science and technology.
SRINIVAS RAMANUJAM – He was born in a poor Brahmin family. He was a born mathematician
prodigy. Lack of formal education made it very difficult for him to make both ends meet and he
could not even graduate. With great difficulty he could get the job of a clerk at Madras Port
Trust which proved fortunate for him. Here he came in contact with many people who had
training in mathematics. He found a book ‘Orders of Infinity’ written by G. H. Hardy. He wrote a
letter to him in which he mentioned 120 theorems and formulae. Hardy was quick to recognize
his genius and he responded by arranging for him a passage to London. Despite his lack of
required qualification he was allowed to enroll at Trinity College from where he got his Bachelor
of Science degree in less than two years. He formed a wonderful team with Hardy and J.E.
Littlewood and made amazing contributions to the field of mathematics. He published many
papers in London. He was the second Indian to be elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London
and the first Indian to be elected Fellow of Trinity College. Some of his conclusions are still
researched over and are found correct.
SUBRAMANIAM CHANDRASHEKHAR –He did commendable work in astrophysics, physics and
applied mathematics. On the voyage to England, he developed the theory of white dwarf stars,
showing that a star of mass greater than 1.45 times the mass of the sun could not become a
white dwarf. This limit is now known as the Chandrasekhar limit. He was awarded the Nobel
prize for Physics in 1983 for his theoretical work on the physical processes of importance to the
structure of stars and their evolution. He was also nephew of C V Raman.
VENKATRAMAN RAMAKRISHNAN – Chemical scientist, he got Nobel Prize in 2009 for studies of
the structure and function of the ribosome.
VIKAM SARABHAI – Dr Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai is another great genius of modem India. He
was the main personality behind the launching of India’s first satellite Aryabhatta. He studied
cosmic rays under the guidance of Dr. C.V. Raman and received his Ph.D. degree from
Cambridge University. Dr. Sarabhai had a multifaceted personality. He was a great Industrializt.
Today, there are many industries founded by him such as Sarabhai Chemicals, Sarabhai Glass,
Sarabhai Geigy Ltd., Sara Bhai Merck Ltd. and many others. He also helped in saving crores of
rupees for India by starting the mission of manufacturing military hardware and producing
antibiotics and penicillin in India which were being imported from abroad. Dr. Vikram Ambalal
Sarabhai established many institutes which are of international repute. Most notable among
them are Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) which are considered world class for their
management studies. He was the Chairman of the Indian National Commission for Space
Research (INCOSPAR) and of the Atomic Energy Commission. He directed the setting up of
Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) and is termed as father of Indian space