Nobel Prize 2021

Nobel Prize CategoryNobel Prize Winners
Physiology or MedicineDavid Julius and Ardem Patapoutian
PhysicsSyukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann and Giorgio Parisi
ChemistryBenjamin List and David W.C. MacMillan
LiteratureAbdulrazak Gurnah
PeaceMaria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov
Economic SciencesDavid Card, Joshua D. Angrist and Guido W. Imbens 

History of Nobel Prize

  • The Nobel Prize was set up when businessman Alfred Nobel died and left the majority of his fortune to the establishment of prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and peace.
  • His will stated that the prizes should be awarded to those who shall have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.
  • Since the 1st Nobel Prizes were awarded in 1901, they have been awarded annually. It was not awarded, mostly during World War I and II. 
  • A Nobel Prize cannot be awarded posthumously.
Nobel PrizeSelection
Nobel Prize in Physics and Chemistry Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Nobel Prize in Physiology or MedicineThe Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet
Nobel Prize in LiteratureThe Swedish Academy
Nobel Peace PrizeNorwegian Nobel Committee
  • [Norwegian Nobel Committee is a 5-member committee of the Norwegian Parliament (Storting).]
  • Fund – When Alfred Nobel died leaving the majority of his fortune to the establishment of the Nobel Prize he stated that the money should be converted into a fund and invested in “safe securities.” 
  • Today the interest earned on that money is used to fund the Nobel Prizes. 

Nobel Peace Prize 2021

The Nobel Peace Prize 2021 was awarded jointly to Maria Ressa and Dmitry Andreyevich Muratov for their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a precondition for democracy and lasting peace.

  • Maria Ressa uses freedom of expression to expose abuse of power, use of violence and growing authoritarianism in her country, the Philippines.
  • In 2012, she co-founded Rappler, a digital media company for investigative journalism, which she still heads.
  • Dmitry Andreyevich Muratov has for decades defended freedom of speech in Russia under increasingly challenging conditions.
  • In 1993, he was one of the founders of the Novaja Gazeta – the most independent newspaper in Russia – that has a fundamentally critical attitude towards power.
CountryRank in World Press Freedom Index 2021

Nobel Prize in Literature 2021

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2021 was awarded to Abdulrazak Gurnah, who was born in Zanzibar.

  • It was awarded for his uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee in the gulf between cultures and continents.
  • Born in Zanzibar, Gurnah was forced to flee to the United Kindom at the end of the 1960s after a revolution occurred in Zanzibar.


  • Zanzibar Island, also known as Unguja, is the main island in the Tanzanian archipelago of Zanzibar. 
  • In 1964, Zanzibar, Pemba Island and some other smaller islands, joined with Tanganyika on the mainland to form the United Republic of Tanzania.

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